英国知识产权概况

总第62期 china ip发表,[专利]文章

  英国是世界上最早实行知识产权保护的国家。早在1624年,英国政府就颁布了被称为现代专利法之始的《垄断法》;随后,为了鼓励文艺创作和创新,英国于1662年推出了世界上首个关于图书印刷许可证的法令;1710年又出台了《安妮法令》(Statute of Anne),该法案的许多原则沿用至今;1852年,英国开始实施《专利法修正法令》,同时成立国家专利局,标志着现代知识产权体制的确立。2006年4月29日,英国开始实施欧盟的200448EC知识产权执法条令(Directive on the Enforcement of Intellectua Property),由专利局负责该条例的具体执行。2007年,英国专利局正式更名为英国知识产权局。在英国,各项权利的申请、审批和保护程序都比较方便、公开、透明。

  2008年,英国知识产权纠纷数量不断上涨。其中,专利法庭的统计数据显示,专利和注册外观设计权利请求增加了95%,而著作权和外观设计权案件则上涨了43%。

  英国对知识产权提供强有力的法律保护。比如,对侵犯著作权和商标行为的刑事处罚包括:对于即席判决,一般判以6个月以下的监禁,并征收5000英镑以下的罚款;对于犯罪情节较重的起诉案件,则可判以10年以下徒刑,且罚金数额不限。

  专利

  申请专利最为关键的是提供专利设计说明书,包括对发明的具体说明、所申请专利项数、有关图纸等。申请者必须用英语对申请保护的发明进行详细说明,提交申请书后不允许再作补充。另外,申请时还需提供一份不超过150个字的发明说明书摘要。

  申请专利保护的具体程序包括:

  ①提交申请。将专利申请表格与专利说明书一起提交英国知识产权局,并缴纳申请费和初审费。

  ②初步审核。审核后将出具一份初步审核报告。

  ③早期对外公开。初审后,无论是否具备申请专利的条件,该项申请均要对外公开。

  ④实质性全面审核。申请者必须在公开6个月内提出实质性全面审核的请求,这也是审核程序的最后一步。

  2008年1月,英国知识产权局推出了一系列新的在线专利申请服务。2月,英国知识产权局对一项计算机程序专利申请的实务说明开始进行修改。此外,在下半年,英国上议院作出的一项判决进一步阐明了专利显而易见性的审判标准。

  专利权的有效期为自提交申请之日起20年,但须在第五年及以后每年缴付相关费用。外观设计专利的有效期自申请日起5年,可有2次5年期续展。对于1989年8月1日以后提交的外观设计申请,可有4次5年期续展。

  商标

  在英国,有关商标的注册及保护是依据《商标法》(1994)实施的。管理部门是英国知识产权局下属的商标注册办公室。根据该法,任何拥有商标的英国公司和非英国公司均有在英国申请注册其商标的权利。在英国注册的商标只在英国本土受到保护,但通过欧盟内部市场协调办公室,在欧盟成员国也同时受到保护。

  在英国,商标注册申请者必须按规定向商标注册办提交正式申请表并缴纳申请费,申请费为225英镑,该申请费包括某一类商品和服务。若另加一类商品和服务,则加收50英镑的费用。商标注册办公室在申请提交后两个月内对申请进行审核,并将审核报告送交申请者。若申请符合有关规定并且所申请注册的商标与现有商标没有发生法律冲突,商标注册办公室就颁发注册许可证并将批准注册的商标刊载于《商标杂志》予以公布。如果与现有商标发生法律冲突,商标注册办公室将给申请者6个月的时间提出申辩。如申辩有效,申请也将得到批准。注册过程如顺利,大约可在12-15个月内得到批准。申请的通过率通常在60%以上。

  2008年4月,英国知识产权局开始启用新的商标申请快速程序。6月1日,英国国际商标注册的费用进行了下调。

  注册商标从正式提出申请之日起有效期为10年,以后延期一次的有效期也为10年,单一类商品和服务的延期费为250英镑,另加其他一类商品和服务的延期加收200英镑。

  著作权

  英国自1709年颁布《安娜女王法令》以来,已先后颁布过《1814年著作权法》、《1842年著作权法》、《1911年著作权法》及有关相应的各种单行法规。现行的著作权法自1956年颁布以来沿用至今。

  为了适应网络时代的发展需要,在2006年出台的《高尔斯知识产权报告》的建议下,英国正在酝酿修订现行的《著作权法》,有可能引入关于在线下载和音乐复制的规定。2008年12月,英国开始对现有的著作权框架进行全面审查,并由知识产权战略顾问委员会(SABIP)协助此项工作。

  在英国,法律允许对外观设计提供著作权保护。一般情况下,外观设计创作成功后即可受到著作权保护,保护期与一般文学艺术作品相同,即作者有生之年加死后50年。由于欧盟对著作权的保护期较其长20年,英国还规定了女王著作权制度。即凡是政府部门或由政府部门直接指导及控制而创作的作品,包括法律条文、专利说明书等,其著作权都归女王所有。与大多数大陆法系国家不同,英国著作权法规定雇佣作品的作者,在一般情况下不享有著作权,而是由雇主或者工作的企业享有著作权。并且,现行著作权法中对保护作者的精神权利没有作出规定,作者的精神权利通常由衡平法进行保护。

  对于著作权集体授权引起的纠纷,通常由英国著作权审裁处解决,该机构是根据英国《著作权、外观设计和专利法案》(1988)而成立的一个独立机构。

  United Kingdom claims to be the earliest country implementing intellectual property protection systems. As early as in 1624, the British Government promulgated the Statute of Monopolies, which is reputed as the origin of modern patent laws. Following that, the first statute in the world on the licensing of book printing came into forth in 1662, with the aim of encouraging literary creation and innovation. The Statue of Anne promulgated in 1710 had its some principles coming down and effective till now. The adoption of Patent Law Amendment Act and the establishment of the United Kingdom Patent Office (UKPO) in 1852 marked the birth of the modern intellectual property system in United Kingdom. Since April 29 of 2006, it has introduced EU’s 2004/48/4EC Directive on the Enforcement of Intellectual Property, whose enforcement was under the control of UKPO. Then in 2007, the United Kingdom Patent Office was officially renamed as the United Kingdom Intellectual Property Office (UKIPO). In this country, procedures of patent application, examination and approval and protection are quite simplified, open and clear.

  In 2008, a growing number of intellectual property disputes appear in UK. According to the statistics of the patent tribunal, applications for patent and registered design are increased by 95% in number, and disputes on copyright and design right are increased by 43%.

  The British government provides strong and forcible legal protection over intellectual properties. For example, criminal punishment against copyright or trademark infringement may be like imprisonment for less than 6 months and a fine not more than 5,000 pounds for summary conviction, or imprisonment of less than 10 years and a fine of unlimited amount in circumstances of a serious nature.

  Patent

  For patent application, the applicant must provide a patent specification, containing the description of the invention, number of patents to be applied for and relevant drawings. Description of invention must be in English, and no supplement is allowed after the application is filed. In addition, the applicant shall provide a less-than-150-word abstract of the specification.

  Procedures for patent application:

  a. Application filing: Submit the filled patent application form and patent specification to UKIPO and pay the application fee and the preliminary examination fee.

  b. Preliminary examination: A Preliminary Examination Report will be issued after the examination.

  c. Initial publication: After the preliminary examination, the application must be disclosed to the public no matter whether it meets the conditions for a patent.

  d. Substantial examination: The applicant must file a request of substantial examination within 6 months after the disclosure. This is the last step of patent application.

  Since January 2008, UKIPO provides a serial of online patent application services. In February, it started the revision of the operation instruction of a patent application program. And in the latter half of the year, the House of Lords reached a judgment, which further explains the criteria for the obviousness judgment of a patent.

  A patent can remain in force for 20 years from the filing date, provided that fees are paid in the fifth year and thereafter annually. Period of validity for design patent is 5 years beginning on the filing date, which may be extended for another two 5-year periods. For design patent applications filed after August 1 of 1989, four 5-year extension periods are granted.

  Trademark

  In UK, trademark registration and protection are based on Trademark Law 1994, under the administration of the Trademark Registration Office of UKIPO. According to this law, any British company or non British company with trademarks is entitled to apply for registration in UK. A registration in UK only gives protection locally, or in EU members through the Office for Harmonization in the Internal Market.

  In UK, applicants for trademark registration must submit an official application form to the Trademark Registration Office and pay a filing fee of 225 pounds for one classification of goods or services and extra 50 pounds for one extra classification. Trademark Registration Office will examine the application within two months from the filing date, and send the examination report to the applicant. Trademarks which fulfill the conditions of the Trademark Law and are not in conflict with any existing registered trademark will be registered and published in the Trademark Journal for disclosure. In case of any conflict with existing registered trademarks, the applicant is granted six months for pleading, and if the pleading is proved effective, the former registration shall retain. Usually the application procedure takes 12-15 months, and its pass rate is usually above 60%.

  From April 2008, UKIPO launched the fast application procedure program for trademark registration. On June 1, the filing fee for international trademark registration was down adjusted.

  Registered trademark is valid for 10 years from the filing date, which may be extended through further periods of 10 years. The extension fee for goods and services of one classification is 250 pounds, extra 200 pounds for one extra classification.

  Copyright

  Queen Anna Act in 1709 drew the prologue of the copyright’s legislation in UK. Copyright Act

  1814, Copyright Act 1842, Copyright Act 1911 and corresponding separate regulations were subsequently promulgated. The Copyright Act currently in force was promulgated in 1956. Suggested by the Gowers Review on Intellectual Property staged in 2006 and to adapt to the development of the Internet, the British government is now incubating an amendment to the current Copyright Act, which will possibly add provisions of online download and music duplication. In December 2008, it started the overall examination of the current copyright frame. This work is supported by Strategic Advisory Board for IP Policy (SABIP). In UK, copyright protection over design is legally permitted. In normal conditions, once the design is created, it will receive copyright protection for a term same as ordinary literary works: the lifetime of the author and 50 years after his (her) death. Considering that the term of copyright protection stipulated by EU is 20 years longer, UK has made a “Queen’s Copyright System”, i.e. the copyright of all works created by government departments or directly under their instruction and control, such as legal provisions and patent specifications, is owned by the Queen. Different from that of most civil law countries, the copyright law in UK stipulates that authors of work made for hire are generally not granted copyright, but the hirer or the enterprise where the author works is granted. In the Copyright Act currently in force, no provisions on the protection of author’s moral rights are made. Such protection is usually carried out by the rule of Chancery.

  Disputes on collective licensing of copyright are usually referred to the copyright tribunal for settlement, which is an independent agency set up in accordance with the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988.

  文章内容归本刊版权所有,若要转载,请先获得本刊同意,并需标注出自《国际知识产权事务所名录》

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