印度知识产权概况

总第64期 China IP发表,[综合]文章

  在印度,无论是专利权、商标权、著作权还是工业设计,均已建立了一个很好的成文的司法行政框架体系用以保护知识产权

  专利

  在专利方面最基本的规定是,在任何领域的发明,不论是产品还是方法,只要其通过三项检查:新颖性、创造性和工业实用性,该发明就具有可专利性。除了用于《与贸易有关的知识产权协定》的一般保障免除条款,在发明的可专利性领域还规定:发明的商业利用应当避免对公共秩序和道德,包括人类、动物以及植物的生命和健康及环境的损害。另外,各成员国也可不对以下的发明授予专利权:对于人体或动物体的诊断、治疗和外科手术方法;除微生物外的植物、动物基本上属于生物过程的动物或植物的产生工艺。

  《与贸易有关的知识产权协定》提供从提交申请之日起至少20年的保护期。根据《与贸易有关的知识产权协定》第70.8条和第70.9条之规定,印度已经履行了其义务。1970年印度对《专利法》进行了一次全面的审查,为了使《专利法》和《与贸易有关的知识产权协定》更协调,同样提出了修改《专利法》的议案。这项议案于1999年12月20日在议会上提出,并于2002年6月25日公布。

  印度政府已经采取了不少措施来加强和提高本国的知识产权保护管理体制的工作效率。就执行方面而言,印度的执法机构非常有效率。同时,印度盗版情况也有明显改观。

  商标

  任何一种能够将一个企业的商品或服务区别于其他企业的商品或服务的标识或标识的组合均可作为商标。在《与贸易有关的知识产权协定》的规定下,这些识别性的标识构成了受保护的主体。该协议规定原始注册商标和每一次续展注册商标的保护期限不得短于7年。一个商标的续展注册次数不受限制,商标强制许可是不允许的。对于一个国际知名商标而言,即使该商标没有在印度注册,它在印度也是受保护的。除商品商标之外,印度的商标法已通过法院的判决扩展至服务标识。

  鉴于贸易和商业惯例的变化、贸易全球化以及商标注册系统对于简单协调的需求等等,印度对1958年的《贸易和商标法案》进行了一次全面的审查,并且提出一项废除和取代1958年法案的议案,即《商标法案》,这项议案已经获得议会的同意并公布在1999年12月23日的政府公报中。这项议案不仅使得《商标法》和《与贸易有关的知识产权协定》相兼容,而且使得它与国际体系和国际惯例更加协调。

  著作权

  印度的著作权法始于1957年的《印度著作权法案》,1999年修订为《著作权法》(修订版),该法案完全符合印度作为缔约国加入的《伯尔尼著作权公约》。此外,印度也加入了《世界版权公约》。印度也是日内瓦的世界知识产权组织和联合国教育科学文化组织的积极成员国。

  为了满足不断变化的要求,《著作权法》一直在定期修订。最近的一次修订是在1995年5月,对著作权作了一次全面的修订,这些修订使得著作权法已经与卫星广播、电脑软件和数字化技术方面的发展保持同步。这部修订后的法律还第一次制定了一些保护演奏家权利的条款,正如在《罗马公约》里所提出的。

  为了加强和提高著作权的实施,印度已经采取了不少措施,包括成立著作权实施咨询委员会、执行人员的培训项目、设立专门的政府部门来处理有关侵犯著作权的案件

  There is a well-established statutory, administrative and judicial framework to safeguard intellectual property rights in India, whether they relate to patents, trademarks, copyrights or industrial designs.

  Patent

  The basic principle in the area of patents is that, inventions in all branches of technology, whether products or processes, shall be patentable if they meet the three tests of being novel involving inventive steps and being capable of industrial applications. In addition to the general security exemption which applied to the entire TRIPs Agreement, specific exclusions are permissible from the scope of patentability of inventions, e.g. when the prevention of whose commercial exploitation is necessary to protect public order or morality, human, animal, plant life or health or to avoid serious prejudice to the environment. Further, members may also be excluded from patentability of diagnostic, therapeutic and surgical methods of the treatment of human and animals and plants and animal other than micro-organisms and essentially biological processes for the production of plants and animals.

  The TRIPs Agreement provides for a minimum term of protection of 20 years, counted from the date of filing. India had already implemented its obligations under Articles 70.8 and 70.9 of TRIPs Agreement. A comprehensive review of the Patents Act, 1970 was also made and a bill to amend the Patents Act, 1970 was introduced in Parliament on 20 December, 1999 and notified on 25 June 2002 to make the patent law compatible with the TRIPs Agreement.

  The Government of India has taken several measures to streamline and strengthen the intellectual property administration system in the country. In respect of the enforcement, Indian enforcement agencies are now working very effectively and there has been a notable decline in the levels of piracy in India.

  Trademark

  Trademarks have been defined as any sign, or any combination of signs capable of distinguishing the goods or services of one undertaking from those of other undertakings. Such distinguishing marks constitute protectable subject matter under the provisions of theTRIPs Agreement. The Agreement provides that initial registration and each renewal of registration shall be for a term of not less than 7 years and the registration shall be renewable indefinitely. Compulsory licensing of trademarks is not permitted. Well-known international trademarks are protected in India even when they have not been registered in India. The Indian Trademarks Law has been extended through court decisions to service marks in addition to trademarks for goods.

  Keeping in view the changes in trade and commercial practices, globalization of trade, demand for simplification and harmonization of trademarks registration systems etc., a comprehensive review of the Trade and Merchandise Marks Act, 1958 was made and a Bill titled the Trademarks Bill to repeal and replace the 1958 Act has since been passed by Parliament and notified in the Gazette on 23 December 1999. This Act not only makes Trade Marks Law, Compatible with TRIPs but also harmonizes it with international systems and practices.

  Copyright

  India's copyright law, laid down in the Indian Copyright Act, 1957 as amended by Copyright (Amendment) Act, 1999, fully reflects the Berne Convention on Copyrights, to which India is a party. Additionally, India is party to the Universal Copyright Convention. India is also an active member of the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), Geneva and UNESCO.

  The copyright law has been amended periodically to keep pace with changing requirements. The recent amendment to the copyright law, which came into force in May 1995, has ushered in comprehensive changes and brought the copyright law in line with the developments in satellite broadcasting, computer software and digital technology. The amended law has made provisions for the first time to protect performer's rights as envisaged in the Rome Convention. Several measures have been adopted to strengthen and streamline the enforcement of copyrights. These include the setting up of a Copyright Enforcement Advisory Council, training programs for enforcement officers and setting up special policy cells to deal with cases relating to infringement of copyrights.

  文章内容归本刊版权所有,若要转载,请先获得本刊同意,并需标注出自《国际知识产权事务所名录》

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