丹麦知识产权概况

总第66期 China IP发表,[专利]文章

  在丹麦,知识产权享有全面的尊重和保护。丹麦是欧盟成员国,也是世界知识产权组织和绝大多数国际知识产权协定的成员国,例如《巴黎公约》、《保护文学和艺术作品伯尔尼公约》、《与贸易有关的知识产权协定》(TRIPs)、《专利审查高速路》(PPH)和北欧专利研究所。

  虽然丹麦知识产权法中绝大部分都与欧洲知识产权法相同,但是仍然有些不同之处值得注意。

  专利

  法律框架

  丹麦是欧洲专利组织的成员,也就是说欧洲的专利同样可以在丹麦认证。如果专利申请书是英文的,只需把权利要求翻译成丹麦文。需要注意的是,欧洲的专利不覆盖格陵兰岛和法罗群岛。这两个地区只承认丹麦国家专利

  丹麦专利立法与其余欧洲国家立法没有冲突,并与《欧洲专利公约》极为相似。

  丹麦的专利申请需提交给丹麦专利商标局,该局负责新颖性检索和专利审查。申请人将在提交申请后的6到10个月内收到一份关于新颖性和可专利性意见的报告,也就是说收到报告的时间会早于12个月的优先权日。丹麦专利申请可用英文提交和审查,但是只有在权利要求被翻译成丹麦语之后才能获得批准。欧洲专利审批后将进入9个月的异议期。

  异议期到期后,如果对该发明的可专利性持有异议,第三方可以申请全部或部分撤销专利。此项申请可以递交给丹麦专利商标局或国家法院,此规定同时适用于丹麦专利申请和丹麦认可的欧洲专利

  丹麦专利商标局是第一批加入PPH的专利局之一,PPH在2006年首先由日本专利局和美国专利商标局提起。PPH体系由一系列双边协定组成,旨在为专利申请人提供一条在权威人士的工作成果基础上,请求加快专利审查的途径。丹麦专利商标局在2008年通过开通与日本专利局的专利审查高速路加入PPH,并于2009年与韩国知识产权局开通了专利审查高速路。截止目前,丹麦和中国知识产权局还未达成相关协定,但是一直在发布新的PPH协定。丹麦对其他国家的三条专利审查高速路已经可以被《专利合作条约》认可。这三条高速路分别为丹麦对日本专利局,对美国专利商标局和对俄罗斯专利商标局。

  此外,丹麦还是北欧专利研究所(NPI)的成员:NPI不仅是国际检索单位(ISA),国际初审单位(IPEA),还是补充国际搜索单位(SIS)。若在某技术领域进行使用,而丹麦或其他斯堪的纳维亚国家中存在与之相对的先前技术,则有必要进行这一检索,因为此类先前技术通常使用的是该国的本土语言,因此不易于非斯堪的纳维亚的检索机构进行查找。

  补充保护证书

  在丹麦,专利保护期最长为20年。根据欧盟法律,医药产品和植物新品种的专利保护可以依据上市许可历史最多延展5年。补充保护证书(SPC)涵盖了由相关权威机构授权后在市场上销售的专利药品成分中的主要化合物,例如医疗产品代理欧洲委员会。

  SPC保护期始于专利过期日,最长5年。但是,如果专利持有人经测试,证明该药品适用于儿童并且获得许可在所有欧盟成员国销售,那么该医药产品的SPC可以最长延展到6年。

  实用新型

  和很多欧洲国家不同,在丹麦可以申请实用新型。实用新型只能授予产品和设备,不能授予方法和应用。应当注意的是,丹麦的实用新型适用于格陵兰岛,但不适用于法罗群岛。

  实用新型是否接受新颖性和非显著性审查由申请人决定。如果决定不要求审查,则实用新型可在几个月内授予,但是直到优先权日15个月后才能公布,除非特别要求提早公布时间。

  未经审查的实用新型可在日后根据申请接受审查。由于审查是庭审中执行实用新型的前提,通常该申请都由权利所有人提出,但他人也可以要求进行审查。

  案例法显示,授予并经过审查的实用新型是相对有力的工具,可以与专利在平等的基础上执行,包括申请禁令。

  丹麦实用新型需每年缴纳年费,有效期最长为10年。

  商标

  丹麦承认共同体商标,但同时也可以申请丹麦国家商标

  丹麦在商标领域中的差异是最值得引起注意的。丹麦的商标权是唯一可以仅通过商标的应用而确立的欧盟成员国。因此商标权的确立不要求一定经过注册。不过因为注册商标在权利证明上相对容易,一般推荐注册。

  丹麦专利商标局相对来讲工作效率较高,商标权一般只需3到8个月就能取得。

  商标可以包含文字及其组合;包括标语,姓氏、公司名称或不动产名称;字母和数字;颜色和声音;图形和图画或特定的三维形状、商品装潢或包装。除传统商标注册之外,还可以注册集体商标、证明商标和服务商标。违反道德和公共秩序的商标不得注册。通用名称,如地理标志和名称、包含涉及公众利益的标记、旗帜、盾饰的商标不得注册。不具有显著特征的商标也不得注册,除非证明其通过使用获得了显著特征。

  在丹麦零售服务可取得商标,前提是所涉及的服务的性质必须有明确定义。

  如果申请人定居处不在丹麦,或者定居在其它欧盟成员国,申请需通过在丹麦的代理人提交。该过程不需出具委托书,也不要求法律认可和公证。

  像大多数欧盟国家一样,在《保护知识产权巴黎公约》成员国第一次提出商标注册申请之后6个月内在丹麦申请国家商标时,如提出要求,申请可以取得优先权。国际商标注册可以建立在丹麦商标注册的基础之上。同样的,根据《马德里协定》,指定丹麦的商标国际注册具有与该商标在丹麦注册相同的法律效力。

  值得注意的是,丹麦的商标申请也适用于格陵兰岛和法罗群岛。2011年1月1日起,共同体商标注册也适用于格陵兰岛,但不适用于法罗群岛。

  丹麦国家商标申请提交后,将进行相应审查。审查内容包括形式、分类、清晰度、描述性、显著特征、存在混淆的可能性或是否与在先权利构成冲突。如果发现了在先权利,须告知申请人,但是引用本身并不构成拒绝商标注册的理由。如果要使用在先权利阻止商标注册,在先权利人必须提出异议。因此强烈建议建立监督服务,确保持有注册商标的客户知悉应该对哪些新申请的商标提出异议。

  一旦审查完成,商标将进入为期2个月的异议期。如果到期前没有提交异议,商标就能最终取得注册。

  对于商标申请的异议可以基于冲突的商标注册的在先权利。但也可以基于商标不具有显著特征;具有误导性、混淆性或诋毁性;侵犯著作权,姓名、公司名称的在先权或工业设计权等理由。未经授权使用受国家保护的徽章、标记等的国际规则也可以成为提出异议的理由。

  在大多数欧盟国家,注册商标权可以全部或部分授权给他人使用:授权可以是排他的,也可以是一般授权,授权协议的生效不需登记。

  与之相似,注册商标可以出售、抵押、转让和在其他方面视为财产使用。

  丹麦国家商标注册授予持有人在登记范围内的产品和/或服务上独家使用该注册商标的权利。商标持有人也有反对后继构成冲突的商标的权利,就混淆性相似商标的侵权行为提起诉讼的权利,申请海关当局查没进口仿冒品的权利,商标授权和转让的权利等。

  注册商标自注册之日起生效,有效期10年。此后以每10年为一期续展注册。注册之日起5年后,商标适用于使用要求。因此,在最初5年后,商标在面临基于未使用该商标而提起的商标注销行为时会相对脆弱。如果不能证明对该商标的使用,商标可能被完全注销,或在不能证明使用了该商标的特定产品或服务上注销。

  工业设计

  丹麦适用共同体工业设计申请,也允许申请丹麦国家工业设计。

  工业设计几乎涵盖了所有不以技术为本质属性的设计。经典的例子是珠宝设计、包装设计、工具设计、玩具设计、家具和家用电器设计。任何不能由工业设计保护的功能性或技术性特征都可能通过专利或实用新型保护。

  获得工业设计注册的要求很简单。该项设计必须具有新颖性,且必须具备个性特征。

  在新颖性方面,工业设计所有者可以在12个月的宽限期内通过公布该设计测试其市场价值(比如,让该设计进入市场)。这在丹麦法律中不会损害该工业设计的新颖性。然而,应当小心的是,如果使用这样的方法,工业设计所有人可能会冒着不能在国外申请此项工业设计的风险。

  在丹麦取得工业设计的程序很简单。必须向丹麦专利商标局提起申请,如果申请人定居在欧盟国家,可以由本人申请,如果不是,则可以通过当地的代理申请。

  申请必须包含申请人信息,申请的工业设计的图片和可能存在的优先权信息。工业设计的图片可以是绘画、照片、计算机制作的图片或其他展示方法。

  申请提交后,将进行形式审查。如果提出要求,可以进行新颖性检索,但是该项不是申请流程中自动带有的一部分。

  如果形式审查合格,工业设计将会进入公示期供他人提出异议。异议期为两个月,过期之后即作最终登记。

  对于工业设计的异议可以基于缺乏新颖性,缺乏个性特征或不与形式相符的理由。

  注册后的工业设计可以授权、出售、抵押或以其他方式充当财产使用。上述协议的生效不要求在丹麦专利商标局备案。

  在丹麦,注册的工业设计赋予其持有人独家在贸易过程中使用该设计的权利。但是它并不禁止个人为了自己使用或娱乐而复制注册的工业设计的行为。

  工业设计注册后有效期最长可达25年,此后需以每5年为一期续展,以保证其法律效力。

  文章内容归本刊版权所有,若要转载,请先获得本刊同意,并需标注出自《国际知识产权事务所名录》

  Intellectual property rights are well protected andrespected in Denmark. Denmark is a member state of the European Union, and is also a member of the World Intellectual Property Organization as well as party to most international treaties and agreements on Intellectual Property Rights, such as the Paris Convention, the Berne Convention, TRIPs, the Patent Prosecution Highway and the Nordic Patent Institute.

  While most of the laws governing intellectual property rights in Denmark have been harmonized with those of Europe, there remain a few differences which are worth noting.

  Patent

  Legal Framework

  Denmark is a full member of the European Patent Organization, meaning that granted European patents can be validated in Denmark. If the patent text is in English, it is only necessary to translate the claims into Danish. It should, however, be noted that a European patent does not cover the territories of Greenland and the Faroe Islands. These territories are only covered by national Danish patents.

  National Danish patent legislation has been largely harmonized with that of the rest of Europe and bears strong similarities to the European Patent Convention. Danish patent applications are filed with the Danish Patent and Trademark Office (DKPTO), which then performs a novelty search and a patentability examination. The applicant will receive a report on the novelty searchincluding an opinion on the patentability within 6 to 10 months of the date of filing, i.e. well before the 12-month priority date. Danish patent applications may be filed and prosecuted in the English language, but a patent is not granted until the patent claims have been translated into Danish. The publication of the grant triggers a 9-month opposition period, just as a European patent.

  When the opposition period has expired, third parties may request cancellation in whole or in part, if they object to the patentability of the invention. This request can be made to either the DKPTO or to the national courts, and applies to national Danish patents as well as o European patents validated in Denmark.

  The DKPTO was among the first patent offices to join the Patent Prosecution Highway (PPH) system originally initiated by the Japanese Patent Office (JPO) in 2006. The PPH system consists of a number of bilateral agreements made in order to provide applicants with a means for requesting accelerated prosecution of patent applications based on the work products of the respective authorities. The DKPTO joined the PPH system in 2008 by opening a highway with the JPO and has opened a highway with the Korean Intellectual Properties Office (KIPO) in 2009. At the time of writing no PPH agreement has been reached with the State Intellectual Property Office of the People’s Republic of China (SIPO), but new PPH agreements continue to be launched. Three of the DKPTO’s highways are eligible for work products under the PCT as well. These are the highways with JPO, USPTO and the Russian Federal Service for Intellectual Property (Rospatent).

  Moreover, Denmark is party to the Nordic Patent Institute (NPI): it acts both as an International Searching Authority (ISA) and as International Preliminary Examining Authority (IPEA) and also performs Supplementary International Searches (SIS). If operating

  in a technical field where national rights from Denmark or other Scandinavian countries are expected to constitute important prior art, such a search might be worthwhile, since such rights are often written in the local languages and risks cannot be found by a non-Scandinavian search authority.

  Supplementary Protection Certificates

  The maximum term of protection for a Danish patent is twenty years. By European Union law, the term of protection for medicinal products and plant protection products covered by a patent can be extended by up to five years depending on the history of the marketing authorization. A Supplementary Protection Certificate (SPC) covers the active compound or compounds which are protected by the patent and which are authorized for sale in the market by the relevant authority,

  e.g. theMedical Products Agency of the European Commission. The SPC’s term of protection begins when the patent has expired and cannot exceed five years. An SPC for a medicinal product can, however, be extended by up to six years if the patent owner has tested the medicinal product’s suitability for children and the product is authorized for sale in all EU member states.

  Utility Models

  As opposed to many other European countries, it is possible to apply for a utility model in Denmark. Utility models can be granted only for products and apparatuses, not for methods and applications. It should be noted that a Danish utility model covers the territory of Greenland, but not the territory of the Faroe Islands.

  It is up to the applicant to decide whether the utility model application should be examined with regards to novelty and non-obviousness. If a choice is made not to request examination, the utility model is granted after a few months, but will not be published until 15 months from the priority date, unless early publication is specifically requested.

  Un-examined utility models may be examined later upon request. As examination is a prerequisite of enforcing the utility model in a court of law, such a request is typically made by the proprietor, but others may also request the examination.

  Case law has shown granted and examined utility models to be relatively strong weapons, which can be enforced on an equal basis with patents, including the possibility for injunctions.

  Danish utility models may be kept in force for a maximum of 10 years through the payment of an annual fee.

  Trademark

  While Denmark is covered by an application for a Community Trademark, it is also possible to apply for a Danish national trademark.

  The most notable difference is found in the field of trademarks. Denmark is the only country in the EU in which a trademark right can be established by use alone. Registration is thus not mandatory in order to establish a right, although it is always recommended due to the ease with which a registered right can be proved to exist.

  The Danish Patent and Trademark Office is relatively efficient and a trademark right can usually be obtained as little as three to eight months.

  Trademarks can consist of words, names, devices, certain three-dimensional shapes, slogans, colours, sounds as well as trade dress. In addition to the classic trademark registration, it is possible to obtain rights to collective marks, certification marks and service marks. Trademarks that are contrary to moral standards or public orders are not registerable, just as generic terms, geographical names or flags, emblems and symbols of state are not registerable. Nor can non-distinctive trademarks obtain registration, unless acquired distinctiveness through use can be proved.

  In Denmark it is possible to obtain trademark registration for retail services, provided that the nature of the services in question is clearly defined.

  If the applicant is not domiciled in Denmark or in another EU member state, the application must be filed through a local representative. No power of attorney is needed and neither legalization nor notarization is required.

  As with most countries in the EU, it is possible to claim priority when filing an application for a national Danish trademark, provided the prior right stems from a country which is a member of the Paris Convention and the application is filed within the six-month deadline. International registrations can be based on national Danish registrations, just as Denmark can be designated in international registrations through the Madrid Protocol.

  It is worth mentioning that a national Danish application also covers the territories of Greenland and the Faroe Islands. As of 1 January 2011 Community Trademark Registrations also cover the territory of Greenland, but not the Faroe Islands.

  Once a national Danish trademark application has been filed, it will be examined for formalities, classification, clarity, descriptiveness, distinctiveness, deceptiveness or conflicts with earlier rights. If such earlier rights are found, the applicant is notified, but the citation in itself is not a ground for refusal. In order for an earlier right to block the application, the holder of the earlier right must file an opposition. It is therefore strongly advised to establish a watch service for registered trademarks to ensure that the client is notified of any new trademark applications which ought to be opposed.

  Once the application has been duly examined, the trademark is published and a two-month opposition period begins. If no opposition is filed before the expiry of the deadline, the trademark registration is considered final.

  An opposition against a trademark application can be based on prior rights such as a conflicting trademark registration, but can also be based on arguments that the trademark is not distinctive, that it is misleading, deceptive or disparaging, or that it is in breach of copyright or rights to a personal name, company name or design rights.

  An opposition can also be founded on international rules concerning the unauthorized use of national protected emblems, flags, etc.

  As in most of the EU, a registered trademark right can be licensed in whole or in part: the license can be exclusive or non-exclusive and the license agreement need not be recorded in order to be effective.

  Similarly, a registered trademark can be sold, pawned, transferred and otherwise treated as a material good.A national Danish trademark registration confers on the owner the sole right to use the registered trademark for the goods and/or services covered by the registration. Also, the holder has the right to oppose subsequent conflicting trademarks, the right to sue for the infringement against confusingly similar trademarks, the right to apply for seizure by the customs authorities in the event of importation of counterfeited goods and, of course, the right to license the trademark and to sell it, etc..

  The initial term of the registration is 10 years from the registration date, after which the registration must be renewed every 10 years. After 5 years from the registration date, the trademark becomes subject to use requirements. After the initial five years, the trademark thus becomes vulnerable to cancellation actions based on non-use of the trademark. If use cannot be proven, the trademark will be canceled either in its entirety or for the specific goods and/or services for which use cannot be proven.

  Designs

  While Denmark is covered by an application for a Community Design, it is also possible to apply for a Danish national design.

  A design can be almost anything, as long as it is not technical in nature. Classic examples of design are jewelry, packaging, tools, toys, furniture or household appliances. Any functional or technical features which cannot be protected through a design, might be eligible for protection as a patent or utility model.

  The requirements for obtaining a design registration in Denmark are fairly simple. The design must be novel and it must have individual character.

  For novelty, there is a 12-month grace period within which the proprietor of a design can test the market value of the design by publishing the design (for example, by putting it on the market). This will not damage the novelty of the design in the eyes of Danish law. Care should be taken, however, if, by doing so, the proprietor risks damage the opportunity to register the design abroad.

  Obtaining a design registration in Denmark is a fairly simple procedure. An application must be filed with the Danish Patent and Trademark Office, either by the applicant themselves if they are domiciled in the EU, or via a local representative.

  The application must contain information about the applicant, pictures showing the design and possible priority information. Pictures of the design may be in the form of drawings, photographs, computer generated images or some other illustrative medium.

  Once the application has been filed, it will be examined in respect of formalities. A novelty search can be conducted upon request, but does not automatically form part of the application procedure.

  If the formalities are all found to be in order, the design will be published for opposition. There is an opposition period of two months, after which the registration will become final.

  An opposition against a design application can be based on lack of novelty, lack of distinctive character or non-compliance with the formalities.

  The registered design can be licensed, sold, pawned or otherwise treated as a material good. There is no requirement for such agreements to be recorded with the Danish Patent and Trademark Office in order for them to be enforceable.

  A registered design right in Denmark confers on its owner the sole right to exploit the design in the course of trade. It does not protect against the actions of private individuals, who reproduce a design for their own use and enjoyment.

  Once a design has been registered, it has a maximum lifespan of 25 years. It must be renewed after every five-year period in order to remain in force.

分享到:


免责声明:凡本网注明"来源:XXX(非中国知识产权杂志出品)"的作品,均转载自其它媒体,转载目的在于传递更多信息,并不代表本网赞同其观点和对其真实性负责。本网转载其他媒体之稿件,意在为公众提供免费服务。如稿件版权单位或个人不想在本网发布,可与本网联系,本网视情况可立即将其撤除。新闻纠错:010-52188215,邮箱:chinaip@hurrymedia.com

会员留言


只有会员才可以留言, 请注册登陆

查询及评价系统

文章检索

关键词:

在线调查

日前,有报道称内蒙某大学的二楼食堂擅自将参加过《爸爸去哪儿》里的明星父子张亮和张悦轩的照片展示出来,并且取名叫“张亮麻辣烫”。内容对话颇显宣传意义,张亮以其侵权为由,将其告上法庭,索赔180万,有部分网友认为要求索赔太多。你怎么看?

不好说
不合理,太多了
合理,甚至还不够