巴西知识产权发展概况

总第67期 China IP Magazine发表,[综合]文章

  巴西于1994年4月1日签署了关贸总协定乌拉圭回合谈判中《与贸易有关的知识产权协议》(TRIPs)。巴西是世界知识产权组织的成员国,同时也是《保护文学艺术作品伯尔尼公约》、《华盛顿专利合作条约》和《保护工业产权巴黎公约》的签署国。

  巴西已通过了经修订的著作权、软件、专利商标方面的立法。巴西的《新工业产权法》从1997年5月开始生效,使得巴西有关专利商标立法的大多数规定达到了世界贸易组织TRIPs协议中的标准。然而,这部新的法律也包括和TRIPs协议的规定不一致的强制许可条款和当地使用规范。尽管巴西在知识产权保护方面已取得进步,但仍须采取进一步举措以打击盗版。

专利

  在大多数方面,巴西工业产权法9.279/96已使得其专利商标立法达到TRIPs协议中规定的标准。

  该《专利法》为制药化学品、化学合成物和加工食品提供了专利保护,而上述产品在1971年的巴西工业产权法中是不可获得专利的。现有法律也准许向符合新颖性、创造性和工业实用性要求的转基因微生物授予专利。法律还对在其他国家已被授予专利但尚未投入市场的医药、化学和加工食品提供了立即生效的管道式保护。专利申请应在该法公布之日起一年内提交,该法规定后,这种可能性是那时期的机会。

  目前的《工业产权法》规定了专利所有人就已获得的专利“滥用权利”时的强制许可条款。在这种情况下,该许可将被授予具有技术和经济能力、能为该专利寻找实用途径的第三方。强制许可的理论适用条件是专利所有权人3年内未在巴西使用该专利,例如,未在当地进行生产。

  此外,该新法将发明专利的有效期从15年延长到了20年。

商标

  这部新工业产权法对巴西的商标保护体系而言是重大的进步,并为国际驰名商标提供了更好的保护。如果有关当事方签订了商标许可协议,则该许可协议必须在国家工业产权局注册后方可对抗第三方;然而,未注册该许可协议将不会导致商标因未使用而被注销。

  在巴西,滥用国际“驰名”商标已经成为一个严重问题。然而,由于巴西在过去四年已经采取措施为该类商标提供更多的保护,这方面也已经取得一些进步。一些外国公司已在商标侵权案件中胜诉。

商业秘密

  巴西没有一部法律特别规定对商业秘密或专有技术进行保护。对不正当披露或窃取行业中的技术诀窍、资讯,或工商、服务行业中使用的机密数据的行为,仅能依靠不正当竞争方面的实践予以间接的规制。

著作权

  巴西的《著作权法》尽管还需就平行进口问题进行修订,但是整体上符合国际标准。巴西的软件《著作权保护法》规定了出租权,并将著作权保护期限延长至50年。

  尽管在1998年这些法律已获通过,广泛存在的盗版和商标侵权现象至今仍是一个问题。

  尽管政府最近在努力堵截巴西和巴拉圭边境上泛滥的侵权货物,但对于《著作权法》的实施总体上还是很松懈。在最近3年里,针对音像和软件盗版的法律实施已经有所进步,政府和私营部门已经采取措施以减少盗版音像制品的进口。一些外国公司已经成功地利用巴西法律保护其著作权。

  巴西议会在2003年7月通过一部法律,提高了处罚著作权侵权的最低刑期,并规定了逮捕和销毁所没收产品的程序。2004年11月,政府加大打击盗版及其他知识产权犯罪的力度。2005年,议会制定并开始实施在全国范围内打击假冒和走私商品计划。

  Brazil is a signatory to the GATT Uruguay Round Accords, including the Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property (TRIPs) Agreement, signed in April 1994. Brazil is a member of the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) and a signatory of the Bern Convention on artistic property, the Washington Patent Cooperation Treaty, and the Paris Convention on Protection of Intellectual Property.

  Brazil has passed revised copyright, software, patent, and trademark legislation. Brazil's new Industrial Property Law took effect in May 1997, bringing most respects of Brazil's patent and trademark regime up to the standards specified in the WTO/TRIPs Agreement. However, the new law also includes compulsory licensing and local working requirements that appear to be inconsistent with the TRIPs. Although Brazil has made progress toward improved protection for intellectual property rights, it must take further significant steps to combat piracy.

Patent

  In most respects, Brazil Industrial Property law 9.279/96 brings its patent and trademark regime up to the international standards specified in the TRIPs Agreement.

  The new law provides patent protection for chemical pharmaceutical substances, chemical compounds and processed food products, which were not patentable under Brazil's 1971 Industrial Property Code. The present law also provides the patentability of transgenic microorganisms, when it attends to the requirements of novelty, inventive activity and industrial immediately, for pharmaceutical, chemical and processed food products that had been patented in other countries but not yet placed on any market. This possibility was an opportunity for that period since the Law required the patent application should be filed within a period of 1 (one) year from the date of publication of the Law.

  The present Industrial Property Law includes the compulsory licensing only in the specific cases when the owner of the patent is exercising the called “abusive rights” inconsequence of this property. In this case, this license will only be granted to a third part that has a technical and economical ability to explore the object of that patent.

  The law would theoretically permit the grant of a compulsory license if a patent owner has failed to work, i.e. locally manufacture, the patented invention in Brazil within three years of issuance.

  In addition, the present law extends the term for patents from 15 to 20 years for patent of inventions.

Trademark

  The present Industrial Property Law provides for significant improvements in Brazil's trademark regime, including better protection for internationally known trademarks. Trademark licensing agreements must be registered with the National Institute of Industrial Property (INPI) to be enforceable against third parties; however, the failure to register licensing agreements will no longer result in cancellation of trademark registration for nonuse.

  The fraudulent use of internationally "well-known" marks has been a significant problem in Brazil. However, progress has been made in this area as Brazil has taken action in the last four years to provide greater protection for such marks. Some foreign firms have been successful in court actions against trademark infringement.

Trade Secret

  Brazil does not have a statute that specifically provides protection to trade secrets or know-how. There is only an indirect form of protection, derived from the practice of unfair competition, against a third party who improperly disclose or explore the respective know how, information, or confidential data used in the industry, commerce or services.

Copyright

  Brazil's copyright law generally conforms to world-class standards, although amendments are needed to address parallel imports. Likewise, its software copyright protection law contains provisions that introduce a rental right and an increase in the term of protection to 50 years. Despite passage of these copyright laws in 1998, widespread piracy of copyright and trademark material remains a problem.

  Despite the government's recent efforts to stem the flow of pirated goods across the border with Paraguay, enforcement of copyright laws has generally been lax. In the last three years, enforcement of laws against video and software piracy has improved and the government and the private sector have initiated action to reduce the importation of pirated sound recordings and videocassettes. Some foreign firms have had success in using the Brazilian legal system to protect their copyrights.

  The Brazilian Congress passed a law in July 2003 that increased minimum prison sentences for copyright violations and established procedures for making arrests and destroying confiscated products. In November 2004, the government strengthened to combat piracy and Intellectual Property crimes in 2005, the Counci developed and began implementing a national plan for combating piracy and smuggling.

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