以色列知识产权概况

总第67期 China IP Magazine发表,[综合]文章

概要
  作为《专利合作条约》(PCT)和世界贸易组织的成员国,以及《巴黎公约》、《与贸易有关的知识产权协议》(TRIPs)、《尼泊尔协议》和其他条约(如下)的签约国,以色列享有包括专利、外观设计、商标和著作权在内的全面知识产权保护。以色列是以下条约的签约国:
  1.《保护工业产权巴黎公约》
  2.《防止虚假来源地标记马德里协定》
  3.《商标注册商品和服务国际分类尼斯协定》
  4.《保护原产地名称里斯本协定》
  5.《马德里协定》(未实施)
  6. 世界贸易组织成员国,TRIPs签约国
  7.《世界贸易组织公约》
  8.《保护文学艺术作品伯尔尼公约》
  9.《世界版权公约》
  10.《专利合作条约》
  11.《专利法条约》
  12.《有关商标注册用商品和服务国际分类的尼斯协定》
  13.《国际专利分类斯特拉斯堡协定》
  14.《保护录制者、防止录制品被擅自复制的日内瓦公约》
  15.《为专利申请程序的微生物备案取得国际承认的布达佩斯条约》
  16.《国际植物新品种保护联盟》

专利
  以色列每年受理约5,500项国外专利申请。
  ● 在以色列,要注册一项专利,该专利必须具有新颖性,实用性,可用于工业、农业生产并具备独创性。
  ● 该专利需在世界范围内具有新颖性。
  ● 专利申请可以使用英语或希伯来语(即不需特地将专利申请翻译成希伯来语)。
  ● 以色列是受理《专利合作条约》(PCT)申请的中心,同时也是权威检索地。相较其他国家,以色列因为专利只有在得到许可后才能公开而具有独特的优势。
  ●  在以色列,国外和本国的专利申请别无二致。专利申请人几乎自动享有澳大利亚、奥地利、美国、德国、英国、丹麦、俄罗斯联邦、日本、欧盟、挪威、加拿大和瑞士对其专利的认可。同样,任何有PCT国际检索报告认证的专利都将自动获得以色列专利机构的认可。
  ● 专利获得许可后,将公示3个月以便第三方在专利登记前提出异议。
  ● 专利保护期为最早优先权日起20年。
  ● 专利期可延展,制药专利专利延展期最多为5年。
  ● 以色列的专利申请人必须提供在以色列的通讯地址。

商标
  ● 在以色列,任何能区分特定商品、服务的字母、数字、图案、或其他标志及以上多种元素的组合,不论是二维或三维,都可以注册为商标
  ● 根据最近的地方法院判决,口号作为商标的注册是允许的。
  ● 现行审查前的等待期约为一年。● 拒绝商标申请的理由可以是相对的(冲突的商标),也可以是绝对的(商标必须具有独特性而非描述性)。
  ● 产品和服务的分类适用《有关商标注册用商品和服务国际分类的尼斯协定》。
  ● 注册商标不要求实际应用,但是连续三年不使用的商标,该商标将被注销。
  ● 以色列实行多类注册制,即不需对每一类商品和服务都单独申请商标
  ● 按照《巴黎公约》可申请6个月的优先权。
  ● 在商标登记前将公示3个月,以便第三方提出异议。
  ●  自申请日期,每十年需进行一次商标延展(适用于2003年8月6日以后注册的商标)。商标申请人在十年期满后有六个月时间续展其商标
  ● 如需查扣假冒商品,可以通知以色列海关。著作权以色列的著作权法是基于其签署的《保护文学艺术作品伯尔尼公约》和《国际版权公约》制定的。作者的原创作品的著作权保护期始于作品诞生之日,终于作者逝世后70周年。
  ● 著作权不需登记,但是建议在律师事务所备份。
  ● 著作权保护适用于文学、动画、音乐、录音、软件、数据库、建筑、图标和摄影在内的各种作品。
  ● 以色列对文学、戏剧、音乐、艺术表演者的著作权保护期为自其表演之日起50年。
  ●  以色列法律认可道德权利,尤其是署名权(要求在引用其他作者的作品时标注其姓名),和保护作品完整权(作者有权阻止他人对其作品的扭曲、篡改和歪曲等可能影响其声誉的行为)。

外观设计
  外观设计申请适用于任何具有新颖性,原创性,独特形状或装饰的物体和产品。
  ● 外观设计有5年的保护期限,保护期可延展两次,最多达到15年。在以色列,设计的新颖性指其在以色列没有发表过(但是,通过互联网的发表可能会被考虑在内),
  ● 每项申请只适用于一项外观设计;但是允许一次申请用于整套出售或使用的项目的外观设计。
  ● 以色列的著作权法不保护工业产品的设计元素,所以,后者应视为外观设计得到保护。至于其他知识产权,设计者有使用、生产、供应、进出口该设计的排他权利,并且有权禁止第三方不经许可擅自使用该设计。

General
  As a member of the PCT and WTO and signatory of the Paris Convention, TRIPS, the Berne convention and many more (listed below), Israel enjoys a full array of IP protection including patents, designs, trademarks and copyrights.Israel is a member in the following treaties:
  1. Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property.
  2. The Madrid Arrangement for the prevention of false indications of origin.
  3. The Arrangement of Nice for the international classification of goods and service.
  4. The Arrangement of Lisbon for the Protection of Appellations of Origin.
  5. Madrid Protocol (not yet activated).
  6. WTO Member and Signatory to TRIPS Agreement  (trade-related aspects of intellectual property rights).
  7. WIPO Convention
  8. Berne Convention (Literary and Artistic Works)
  9. Member of UCC (Universal Copyright Convention)
  10. PCT (Patent Cooperation Treaty)
  11. PLT (Patent Law Treaty)
  12. Nice Agreement (International Classification of Goods and Services)
  13. Strasbourg Agreement (International Patent Classification)
  14. Geneva Convention (Unauthorized Duplication of Phonograms) 15. Budapest Treaty (Deposit of Micro-organisms)
  16. Member of UPOV (Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants)

Patents
  About 5,500 patent applications are filed annually by non-Israelis in Israel.
  ● In order to be registered, a patent application in Israel must be new, useful, capable of industrial or agricultural application, and possess an inventive step.
  ●  Universal novelty is required.
  ● Patent applications can be filed in English or Hebrew (i.e. no translation to Hebrew is required).
  ●  Israel is a receiving office for the PCT patents as well as a searching authority. Israel has a unique advantage over other national patent offices insofar as applications are not published until allowance.
  ●  No distinction is made between foreign and local entities  in filing for patent protection in Israel. Applicant enjoys almost automatic allowance of granted patents from Austria, Australia, US, Germany, Denmark, UK, Russian Fed., Japan, European Union, Norway, Canada, and Switzerland. In the same vein, any patent with a positive PCT International Search Report will be allowed almost automatically by the Israeli Patent Authority.
  ●  Allowed applications are published for 3rd party opposition 3 months prior to the registration.
  ●  Patent term is 20 years from the earliest priority date.
  ●  Patent term extensions are allowable  -up to 5 years for pharmaceutical patents.
  ●  Applicants of Israeli patent applications must provide a correspondence address in Israel.

Trademark
  ●  Any letters, numbers, words, devices, or other signs, or combination thereof, whether two-dimensional or three dimensional, in any language, which are adapted to distinguish the goods or services of the proprietor from those of other persons may be registered in Israel.
  ●  According to recent district court ruling - registration of trademarks which are slogans is allowed.
  ●  The current waiting period before examination is slightly more than a year.
  ●  Grounds for refusal can be both relative (conflicting marks) and absolute (the mark should be distinct and not descriptive).
  ●  Classification of goods or services conforms to the International Classification of goods and services (Nice Classification).
  ●  No actual use is required for the registration, however a mark unused for 3 consecutive years can be canceled.
  ●  Israel uses a multi-class system, i.e. no separate application is required for each class.
  ●  Priority can be claimed according to the Paris Convention (6 months).
  ●  Applications are published for 3rd parties opposition 3 months prior to registration.
  ●  Renewal is required every 10 years from the original filing date (for applications registered after 6 Aug.2003). An applicant has a 6 month grace period after the 10thanniversary to renew its mark.
  ●  Israel's Customs can be alerted to seize counterfeit goods.

Copyright
  Israel’s copyright law is based on the Berne Convention and the Universal Copyright Convention, to which it is signatory. The author's original works are protected from the date of creation until 70 years after the author's death.
  ●  No registration of rights is required. However, depositing a copy in a law firm is recommended.
  ●  Protection is available for literary works, animation, musical works, sound recordings, software, databases, architecture works, and graphic arts including photographs.
  ●  Israel grants protection to performers of literary, dramatic, musical, and artistic works for 50 years from the date of the performance.
  ●  Moral rights are recognized by law, specifically the right of attribution (requirement to acknowledge or credit the author of a work which is used in another work), and the right of integrity (right of an author to prevent others from doing things to his work which can hurt his reputation, such as distorting, mutilating or misrepresenting his work.)

Design
  Design application may be filed for any object or product with a novel, original and distinct shape or ornaments.
  ●  Designs are registered for 5 years and can be extended twice for a total of 15 years. Novelty of designs in Israel considers any design that was not published in Israel (however, publication over the internet might be considered in Israel).
  ●  Only one item may be registered with each application; an application for a set of items used or sold together is allowed.
  ●  Israel's copyright law denies copyright protection for the design elements of industrial articles, thus industrial articles should be protected as designs. As for other intellectual properties the design owner enjoys the exclusive right to use, manufacture, supply, import, and export, and has the right to stop any third party from using the design without the owner’s consent.

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